Guide for Industrial Radiography Artifacts
All indications appearing in a radiograph are to be interpreted. Interpretation requires analysing the indication as to whether it is a true indication due to discontinuities or a false indication due to problems with film manufacturing, mishandling of film or poor storage. The interpreter should be able to distinguish a relevant discontinuity from a false indication.
No image in the area of interest must obscure the true indication. All false indications appearing in the area must be re-radiographed for interpretation. All true indications are interpreted and characterized.
In Industrial radiography, false indications are also called artifacts, which may form due to improper handling of film, lead screens or cassettes during any stage of the radiographic process. Common artifacts include:
Branchlike, jagged dark lines or irregular dark spots originating from rapid loading or unloading of film.
produced by extreme pressure on an area of film.• Chemical stain – streaks on the film caused by inadequate removal of chemicals between processing stages or insufficient agitation of the film hanger.
Caused by abrupt bending of film; typically crescent shaped. • Water mark – circular pattern caused by water droplets drying on the film surface.
Formation of a network of wrinkles or cracks in a photographic emulsion.
A stain visible under reflected or transmitted light due to improper development.
Frilling of emulsion
Loosening of the emulsion from the film base due to warm or exhausted fixer solution, high temperature of processing solutions or prolonged washing in warm water.
Caused by abrasive materials or rough handling, including fingernails.
Damaged lead screens – Includes scratches on lead foil screens
Damaged or reused cassette – may cause a false indication to reappear after processing if the same cassette is used. However, the indication will probably move slightly because cassette placement is usually not exact.
The above guide may not be complete and exhaustive. Radiography Film Artifacts are common while processing the films. As long as they do not interfere with interpretation they can be ignored. If the artifacts are masking the relevant flaw indications it is better to re-shoot the same spot radiography.
Artifacts are not only appear in manual processing. There are artifacts in automatic processing such as PI Lines due to scratched on the rollers.